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Адольф Галланд (Adolf Galland)

Тема в разделе "Личный состав", создана пользователем Freulein Barbara, 21 авг 2007.

  1. Freulein Barbara

    Freulein Barbara Moderator

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    Адольф Галланд
    (Adolf Galland)


    Годы жизни: 19.03.1912 - 09.02.1996

    Боевых вылетов: 425
    Воздушных побед: 104

    Родился 19 марта 1912 г. в Вестерхольте (Westerholt) в Вестфалии.
    В возрасте 17 лет начал летать на планерах, причем увлечение планерами сказалось на его успеваемости в школе. Тем не менее, выпускные экзамены Галланд сдал успешно и в 1932 г. поступил в Немецкую школу воздушных сообщений (Deutsche Verkehrsflieger Schule - DVS), точнее, в отделение DVS в Брауншвайге. При этом на 20 мест претендовало 20 000 (!) человек.
    В начале 1933 г. Галланд получил сертификат пилота. Затем в отделении в Шляйсхайме (Monchen-Schleissheim) прошел обучение высшему пилотажу, потом в Варнемюнде курс пилотирования гидросамолетов. Позже в Шляйсхайме прошел курс воздушного боя и боевой стрельбы по наземным мишеням.
    Летом 1933 г. Галланд прошел еще один курс пилотажа в Италии на аэродроме Гроталье (Grotaglie). А осенью 1933 г. в Брауншвайге - курс пилотирования тяжелых транспортных самолетов.
    Только после этого подготовка была закончена и Галланд начал работать в авиакомпании "Люфтганза" в качестве второго пилота.
    15 февраля 1934 г. для прохождения первоначальной военной подготовки Галланд прибыл в 10-й пехотный полк в Дрездене. В октябре 1934 г. ему было присвоено звание лейтенанта и он вернулся в "Люфтганзу", а занем некоторое время работал инструктором в авиашколе в Шляйсхайме.
    В апреле 1935 г. лейтенант Галланд был призван на военную службу и направлен в II./JG132.
    В октябре 1935 г. при испытаниях модифицированного самим Галландом биплана Fw-44 произошло крушение. Его лицо представляло собой сплошную кровавую маску, у него была трещина в основании черепа, перелом переносицы, несколько осколков стекла попали в левый глаз. В течение трех дней Галланд был в коме. Только усилия врачей и лучшего хирурга того времени профессора Фердинанда Зауэрбруха (Ferdinand Sauerbruch) помогли Галланду остаться в живых. Но его левый глаз в значительной мере потерял зрение и медицинская комиссия дала категорическое заключение о непригодности Галланда к полетам. На помощь Галланду пришел командир II./JG132 майор Йохан Райтель (Johann Raithel). Он не дал хода заключению и в течение года никто не знал о непригодности Галланда к полетам. Но в 1936 году Галланд вновь попал в авиакатастрофу и снова получил тяжелые травмы. Врачи, обнаружившие прежнее заключение, были ошеломлены. Неприятности были у Райтеля, допустившего "полуслепого" Галланда к полетам. Однако Галланд не думал сдаваться. Он выучил наизусть таблицу, по которой осуществлялась проверка зрения и во время тестов "читал" ее как вперед, так и в обратном порядке! Врачи сдались.
    7 мая 1937 г. пароход с "туристами", среди которых был Галланд прибыл в Испанию. Так началась его служба в "Легионе "Кондор". Галланд получил назначение в штаб истребительной группы J/88, которым был очень недоволен, так как отвечал за материально-техническое снабжение и мало летал. Но со временем Галланд проявил себя во время вылетов на штурмовку позиций республиканцев в составе 1.J/88 и его назначены командиром 3.J/88, которая неофициально называлась эскадрильей "Микки Маус", потому что на борту ее самолетов был нарисован этот Диснеевский мышонок. Впоследствии на всех самолетах Галланда присутствовал этот персонаж.
    В составе 3.J/88 Галланд выполнил 187 (по другим данным - 280) боевых вылетов на штурмовку наземных целей, при этом он проявил себя как талантливый организатор и новатор. Он ввел в практику использование аэродромов подскока.
    24 мая 1938 г. командиром 3.J/88 вместа Галланда, срок "командировки" которого заканчивался, был назначен Вернер Мёльдерс (Werner Mölders) с которым они стали неразлучными друзьями.
    С 1 августа 1938 г. Галланд служил в Генеральном штабе Люфтваффе и участвовал в создании двух из первых пяти авиагрупп непосредственной поддержки войск (Schlachtgruppen). Но при этом он настойчиво просился в истребительную авиацию.
    В ноябре 1938 г. Галланда направляют в еще не сформированную I./JG433 и его опыт по формированию авиагрупп оказался очень кстати.
    6 июня 1939 г. Галланд был награжден Немецким Испанским Крестом в Золоте (Deutsche SpanienKreuz in Gold), а спустя две недели девять особо отличившихся легионеров, в том числе Галланд, были награждены Немецким Испанским Крестом в Золоте с Мечами и Бриллиантами (Deutsche SpanienKreuz in Gold mit Schwerten und Brillianten).
    В начале августа 1939 г. Галланд был переведен в II.(Sch)/LG2, вооруженную бипланами Hs-123, и в ее составе совершил 87 боевых вылетов на штурмовку наземных целей.
    1 октября 1939 г. Галланд был награжден Железным Крестом 2-го класса и ему было присвоено звание хауптмана.
    С большим трудом Галланду удвлось вновь перевестись в истребительную авиацию и в апреле 1940 г. он был назначен адъютантом JG27. Несмотря на штабную должность он при любой возможности совершал боевые вылеты, в том числе и в одиночку.
    12 мая 1940 г. к западу от Льежа он одержал свою первую воздушную победу. Еще две победы последовали в тот же день. Всеми тремя жертвами были "Харрикейны" РАФ.
    25 мая 1940 г. за 8 побед Галланд был награжден Железным Крестом 1-го класса. К концу французской кампании он накопил 14 побед.
    6 июня 1940 г. хауптман Галланд был назначен командиром III./JG26 и 14 июня одержал первые победы в составе JG26.
    18 июля 1940 г. Галланд представлен к званию майора. Через несколько дней группа начала боевые вылеты над Ла-Маншем.
    1 августа 1940 г. генерал-фельдмаршал Альберт Кессельринг (Albert Kesselring) вручил Галланду Рыцарский Крест, которым тот был награжден за 17 побед и за многочисленные удачные атаки наземных целей в Испании и Польше. Галланд стал первым пилотом JG26, получившим эту награду.
    21 августа 1940 г. Геринг назначил 28-летнего майора Галланда командиром эскадры JG26. Он сразу же принял меры к тому, чтобы командные должности в эскадре получили наиболее способные пилоты. Кроме того, Галланд начал претворять в жизнь свои идеи относительно тактики прикрытия групп бомбардировщиков. Он начал применять вылеты штабного звена из четырех истребителей.
    23 сентября 1940 г. Галланд одержал очередные победы, сбив два "Харрикейна", и число его побед достигло 40. На следующий день Галланд сбивает еще один "Харрикейн", а вечером он был вызван в Берлин.
    25 сентября 1040 г. Гитлер вручил Галланду Дубовые Листья к Рыцарскому Кресту (Nr. 3).
    1 ноября 1940 г. Галланду присвоено звание оберст-лейтенант.
    К концу 1940 г. на счету Галланда числилось уже 58 побед.
    21 июня 1941 г. Галланд одержал три победы, но сам был сбит дважды. В первый раз ему удалось посадить поврежденный самолет на "брюхо", а во второй раз его Bf-109F-2 (WNr. 6713) был продырявлен насквозь польским асом Болеславом Дробински (Boleslaw Drobinski) из 303 Sqdn. RAF. При этом Галланд получил осколочные ранения в голову и руку. Самолет вспыхнул, фонарь кабины заклинило и Галланду с огромным трудом удалось открыть его и вывалиться из самолета. Но парашют зацепился за стойку антенны и Галланд падал вместе с полностью охваченным пламенем самолетом. Каким-то чудом ему удалось освободиться. Галланд опустился на парашюте недалеко от Булони, вывернув при этом лодыжку.
    Вечером 21 июня 1941 г., уже в госпитале Галланда ознакомили с телеграммой от Гитлера, в которой сообщалось, что он первым в вермахте награжден Мечами к Рыцарскому Кресту. Одновременно с телеграммой гитлер прислал приказ о запрете Галланду совершать боевые вылеты. Но после излечения Галланд начал обходить этот приказ, совершая "испытательные" вылеты и наращивая счет сбитых самолетов.

    Продолжение...
     
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  3. Siegrune

    Siegrune Oberschütze

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    Re: Бипланы

    22 ноября 1941 г. погиб инспектор истребительной авиации Вернер Мёльдерс, и 28 ноября Галланд был назначен на должность инспектора с присвоением звания оберст.
    На этом посту Галланд занимался организационными вопросами, в-частности, расформировал учебно-боевые эскадрильи в составе эскадр и вместо них сформировал три учебно-боевых группы Erganzungs-Jagdgruppe Ost, West, Sud ("Восток", "Запад" и "Юг"). Он совместно с Эрхардом Мильхом принял меры к увеличению производства истребителей.
    28 января 1942 г. Гитлер вручил оберсту Адольфу Галланду Бриллианты к Рыцарскому Кресту (Nr. 2).
    12 января 1942 г. Гитлер назначил Галланда лично ответственным за проведение воздушной части операции по проводу немецких кораблей мимо английских берегов в северные воды. Тщательно подготовленная операция "Удар грома" ("Donnerkeil") была успешно проведена 12 февраля и Галланд назвал ее "великим часом" в своей карьере.
    19 декабря 1942 г. Галланду присвоено звание генерал-майора, и в тридцать лет он стал самым молодым генералом в
    Люфтваффе.
    Летом 1943 г. итальянские и немецкие войска на Средиземном море терпели поражения. В реководстве Люфтваффе росло недовольство действиями своих истребителей. 15 июня 1943 г. Галланд был назначен командиром истребительного командования "Сицилия", оставаясь при этом в должности инспектора истребительной авиации. Изменить положение дел в Италии и на Средиземноморье в-целом, Галланду не удалось. 31 июля 1943 г. Галланд вернулся в Берлин.
    В ноябре 1943 г. Галланд начал решительные действия по продвижению реактивных самолетов Me-262 в боевую практику. 9 декабря 1943 г. было создано опытное командование "Лехфельд" (Erprobungskommando Lechfeld). Галланд настаивал на использовании Me-262 в качестве истребителя, тем самым вошел в противоречие с Гитлером, видевшим в новой машине только бомбардировщик.
    В тайне от руководства Галланд иногда совершал боевые вылеты и ему удалось сбить два четырехмоторных бомбардировщика.
    1 декабря 1944 г. Галланду присвоено звание генерал-лейтенанта.
    Тем временем, отношения между Галландом и Герингом постепенно ухудшались. В-частности, Галланд был категорически против участия истребителей в роли штурмовиков при проведении операции "Боденплатте" ("Bodenptatte"). 29 января 1945 г. он был снят с должности инспектора истребительной авиации и спустя два дня ему было предложено сформировать истребительную группу из реактивных Me-262.
    В свою группу, получившую обозначение JV44 (Jagdverband 44) Галланд пригласил лучших пилотов Люфтваффе. 31 марта 1945 г. JV44 была готова к боевым действиям. В составе этой группы Генерал-лейтенант Галланд сбил шесть четырехмоторных бомбардировщиков и, возможно, один P-38.
    1 мая 1945 г. Галланд вместе с JV44 сдался в плен к американцам, из которого был освобожден в апреле 1947 г., а летом 1948 г. перебрался в Аргентину по предложению ее президента Хуана Перона для помощи в реорганизации Аргентинских ВВС.
    7 февраля 1955 г. Галланд покинул Аргентину и ему предложила возглавить Бундеслюфтваффе ФРГ. Но решение этого вопроса затянулось и в 1956 г. Галланд вышел в отставку. Занимался бизнесом, был почетным президентом Ассоциации немецких летчиков-истребителей, участвовал в многочисленных конференциях. Дважды женился, в том числе в возрасте 72 года.

    Умер Адольф Галланд 9 февраля 1996 г.
     
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  4. Siegrune

    Siegrune Oberschütze

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    Re: Бипланы

    Bitte!!!
     

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  5. RedkyZhuk

    RedkyZhuk Stabsfeldwebel

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    Re: Бипланы

    Есть редкое. Спасибо сайту Блокгауз и его участникам neonvl и Виктору Л

    4.jpg 5.jpg
     
  6. Siegrune

    Siegrune Oberschütze

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    Re: Бипланы

    Ещё немного фото А. Галланда.
     

    Изображения:

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  7. unixaix

    unixaix Oberleutnant

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    Göring und Galland vor dessen Maschine, wo er bereits 69 Abschüsse erreicht hatte
    с Гёрингом
     

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    galland69xi7.jpg
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  8. Adolf Mebius

    Adolf Mebius Flieger

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    Перед тем, как постить фото - изучите мат часть или биографию летчика. Ок?
    ...
    Хотя бы на простом и доступном сайте: http://www.luftwaffe.cz/gallanda.html
    ...
    И тогда вы поймете, что Дольфо не служил в JG 53 и его нет на фотографии. :) Ваше фото удалил.

    Там где Вы брали это фото якобы с "69" победами, можете передать от меня привет! т.к. с помощью не хитрых математических подсчетов на хвосте видно "94" победы, но не как не "69". ;)
    ...
    Это 5 декабря 1941 года база JG 26 во Франции, на фото хвост Bf-109F-2/U можете пересчитать победы с этого ракурса. :)
     

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  9. Wotan

    Wotan Obergefreiter

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    %)
    Это 5 декабря, день передачи гешвадера Шёпфелю и посещение гешвадера Герингом. Рапорт Геринг принимал уже у Шёпфеля. Эта машина Bf 109F-2 W.Nr.6750. Неофициальное название «F-6 U», так оно зафиксировано в документе. 94-ю победу, одержанную кстати именно на этой машине, Галланд заявил 8 ноября, а ни как не в середине октября. На этот день (5.12.41)Галланд имел фактически 96 побед. Последних двух, побед нет на РН. Хотя 96-я победа, англичанами не подтверждается.

    Эта же машина, W.Nr.6750, зафиксирована в кинохронике
     
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  10. Transpspeer

    Transpspeer Gauleiter a.D.

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    Re: Бипланы

    Ошибку уже исправили: это Генераль-оберст Александер Лёр. :)
     
  11. Transpspeer

    Transpspeer Gauleiter a.D.

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    Текст интервью, взятого у Адольфа Галланда Коллином Д. Хиттоном, опубликованное в 1997 году.

    When historians speak of pilots and the history of air combat, certain names invariably come up sooner or later--Maned von Richthofen, Edward Mannock, Rent Fonck, Erich Hartmann, Alexander Pokryshkin, Johnny Johnson, Dick Bong... and Adolf Galland. Galland was the youngest general grade officer of either side in World War II, and at age 29 he was more competent in aerial combat, strategy and tactics than many of the experts nearly twice his age.

    Galland fought a hard battle against his superiors on the ground, which made the danger in the air inviting, almost welcome. Adolf Hitler and Luftwaffe Chief Hermann Goring, who were always trying to find fault and place the blame on others for their own failures, began pointing fingers at the fighter pilots. Was it not they who failed to stop the death and destruction delivered by Allied bombers? Was it not the fighter pilots who demanded more of the resources and new technology, yet produced the least results? Goring betrayed his pilots and publicly denounced them as cowards, provoking the Fighters' Revolt in January 1945.

    Galland, well known and admired by his enemies across the English Channel as an honorable and chivalrous foe, found an enemy he could not vanquish. The consummate warrior was engaged in heated battle with absolutist politicians and demagogues, who considered honor and chivalry a weakness. He eventually returned to where he had risen, the cockpit of a fighter plane, but as a lieutenant general leading a squadron. As a fighter pilot he was credited with 104 aerial victories.

    Galland survived the political intrigues and combat of both the Spanish Civil War and World War II, only to find himself in South America working for Argentinian dictator Juan Peron, who at least appreciated his expert knowledge and relied on his honesty.

    A holder of the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds, Galland died in 1995 at the age of 83. He granted this interview in 1994. WWII: General, please describe your childhood and family life. Galland: I was born in Westerholt, a small village in Westphalia on March 19, 1912, so I am now 81 years old. I was the second son, Fritz being the oldest, then myself, Wilhelm and Paul. My father was an administrator of private lands and properties, and he was very fair, but harsh. We had the best mother in the world, and during the war she used to pray for fog to cover our bases so we could not fly.

    WWII: Two of your brothers were combat pilots--which ones were they?

    Galland: Yes, that would be Wilhelm and Paul, the youngest. Paul was the first to die in combat, shot down and killed in 1942, and Wilhelm was killed a year later. Paul had 17 victories, and Wilhelm had 54 and the Knight's Cross. Fritz was an attorney.

    WWII: What developed your interest in flying?

    Galland: Right from the beginning, as a boy, my greatest interest had always been flying. I started building models of aircraft when I was 12 years old, and when I was 16 1 flew in gliders. Over the course of the next three years I became a successful glider pilot, my entire purpose being to study and become a commercial airline pilot. However, my father was not very enthusiastic about this idea at all. This was my dream since 1925, and he had no understanding of my dream.

    WWII: How did you become a founding member of the Condor Legion, the German pilots who flew for General Francisco Franco's forces (Nationalists) during the Spanish Civil War?

    Galland: After one year of training as a commercial pilot I was strongly "invited" to join the "Black Air Force" (the clandestine air force Germany was training prior to Adolf Hitler's rise to power). This was in the remarkable year of 1933, and I already had my first pilot's license. My coinciding training as a fighter pilot helped immensely with the commercial pilot's courses, but by 1937 I had already become a "volunteer" in the Condor Legion. This activity was liked very much by all of the young fighter pilots. I did have a small problem after a crash in a Focke-Wulf Fw-44 biplane in 1935 while in training, and a colleague, future Luftwaffe ace Dieter Hrabak, had one the following week due to bad weather. I had modified the plane beyond normal limits and slammed into the ground. Everyone thought I was dead, and I was in a coma for three days. My parents came and stayed with me until I came out of it. I had serious skull fractures, a broken nose, which never looked the same again, and I was partially blinded in my left eye from glass fragments, so I still had to pass the physical. My CO (commanding officer), Major Rheitel, a flier from the First World War, assisted me in my goal to return to flying. So, I continued to fly, but a year later I crashed an Arado Ar-68 and again went into the hospital, where they pulled my old file stating that I was grounded. Well, with many days in the hospital again I memorized every letter and number in every possible sequence on the eye chart for my next examination. You know, to this day I still have some of the glass from the first crash in my eye.

    WWII: When did you get to Spain?

    Galland: We left for Spain with the Union Travel Society, ostensibly bound for Genoa on a tramp steamer. After 12 days we arrived in El Ferrol on May 7, 1937. I had been to Spain before with Lufthansa and looked forward to returning. In our group of men there were many future aces and leaders fighting for Franco's Nationalists, such as Hannes Trautloft, Wilhelm Balthasar, Gunther Lutzow, Eduard Neumann and Hajo Herrmann, who flew Junkers Ju-52s. I became a squadron leader in the Legion Fighter Group, and we were equipped with Heinkel He-51 biplanes. Lutzow commanded a squadron of the new Messerschmitt Bf-109Bs.

    WWII: What was the Condor Legion's strength in Spain?

    Galland: Only four squadrons each of fighters and bombers and a reconnaissance squadron. We had four heavy and two light AA batteries, and signals units, but we never exceeded around 5,600 men. Generalleutnant Hugo Sperrle was the first CO of the Legion in Spain, and he personally led a flight of bombers against ships at Cartagena.
     
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  12. Transpspeer

    Transpspeer Gauleiter a.D.

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    WWII: What was your first engagement in Spain?

    Galland: Brunete, where we sent every plane we had against the Republican forces in July 1937. The Madrid front was controlled by the Communists, equipped with modem fighters--Russian Polikarpov I-16 Ratas. We bombed and strafed and engaged Loyalist fighters while our artillery pounded their ground positions. Finally we won, and Franco's forces were safe from a disastrous defeat. We also performed dive-bombing missions and created new tactics in ground support.

    WWII: Is it true you often flew in swimming trunks and shirtless?

    Galland: Yes, I flew over 300 missions as a leader, and due to the great heat of the Spanish summer we often flew with hardly any clothes on. That was another innovation we created.

    WWII: Weren't you also part of the development of some innovative weapons?

    Galland: Yes, we filled drop tanks and drums with petrol and oil, using them to great effect. I also thought about having the squadron quartered on a train. Since we always had to move from one base to another, that way we would be always mobile. The Spanish Civil War was much like the First World War, not static as far as the air war went, but very fast-moving. We used the trains effectively, the aircraft being flown to their new bases as needed.

    WWII: This was the time you met Werner Molders, wasn't it?

    Galland: Yes, I was recalled to Germany in 1938, and he was my replacement. We became good friends and remained so until his death in 1941. He was a good man, very strict with his own conduct and expected the same of his men. He was a wonderful man.

    WWII: All the pilots I spoke with who knew him had only the highest praise for his leadership ability and compassion.

    Galland: He was the best man the Luftwaffe had, and he also did well in Spain, shooting down 14 Loyalist aircraft. He went on to have 114 victories and won the Diamonds [to the Knights Cross].

    WWII: You were decorated by the Franco government before you left. What awards did they give you?

    Galland: I was awarded the Spanish Cross in Gold with Diamonds, only awarded 12 times in Spanish history.

    WWII: After Spain, you and Molders began creating the fighter arm in Germany. How did that go?

    Galland: Molders and I were the first fighter leaders of the new age, appointed as wing Kommodores. Molders very much liked having that distinction from the beginning. As for myself, I was unhappy because I wanted to be a fighter pilot. However, that was the order and we had to follow it.

    WWII: Tell us about the beginning of World War II. What was your first combat assignment?

    Galland: I flew in Poland in the Henschel Hs-123, performing ground-attack missions and proving the dive-bombing concept, until October 1, 1939. That was when I won the Iron Cross. Then I was assigned to Jagdgeschwader (fighter wing) 27 (JG.27) under Oberst Max Ibel, which I did not like, as it did not allow for much combat flying. I did get away every now and then, however, and this was during the French invasion. I finally got my first kill on May 12, 1940, when Gustav Roedel and I went on a mission. I shot down two Hawker Hurricanes on two missions. I had about a dozen victories by the end of the French campaign.

    WWII: What was your next arena?

    Galland: Oh, the Battle of Britain, of course! That was a tough fight, where I was assigned to JG.26 Schlageter. I became Gruppenkommandeur of III/JG.26 and shot down two fighters in my first mission with them. I was promoted to Major on July 18 and received the Ritterkreuz (Knights Cross) on August 22, 1940, for my 17th victory. I then succeeded Gotthard Handrick as Kommodore of JG.26 and received the Oak Leaves from Hitler on September 25 for my 40th victory. On November 1, I scored my 50th kill and was promoted to Oberstleutnant (lieutenant colonel). In December I became a full colonel.

    WWII: What was the real story behind the Mickey Mouse insignia painted on the fuselage of your fighter plane?

    Galland: We started this in Spain, and when I painted it on my Me-109E in JG.26 it was holding a hatchet and smoking a cigar, which I loved. But after the war I had to give cigars up.

    WWII: Is it true that you had the only cigar lighter-equipped Messerschmitt in the entire Luftwaffe?

    Galland: I think so, plus a holder for it if I was on oxygen. It created quite a controversy, I can tell you.

    WWII: Describe the first time you were shot down, General.

    Galland: This was on June.21,1941, when JG.26 was stationed at Pas de Calais. We had attacked some Bristol Blenheim bombers and I shot down two, but some Super-marine Spitfires were on me,and they shot my plane up. I had to belly-land in a field until picked up later, and I went on another mission after lunch. On this mission I shot down number 70, but I did something stupid. I was following the burning Spitfire down when I was bounced and shot up badly. My plane was on fire, and I was wounded. I tried to bail out, but the canopy was jammed shut from enemy bullets. So I tried to stand in the cockpit, forcing the canopy open with my back as the plane screamed toward earth. I had opened it and almost cleared the 109 when my parachute harness became entangled on the radio aerial. I fought it with everything I had until I finally broke free, my parachute opening just as I hit the ground. I was bleeding from my head and arm, plus I had damaged my ankle on landing. I was taken to safety by some Frenchmen.

    WWII: You survived being shot down twice in one day. How did it affect you?

    Galland: I was worried that my wounds might ground me for a long time--that was my greatest concern, not to mention I had lost two airplanes.

    WWII: Tell us the story of your friendship with the legless British ace, Wing Commander Douglas Bader.

    Galland: He was shot down during a dogfight on August 9. One of his artificial legs was left in the Spitfire when he bailed out, and the other was smashed after he landed. I made a request through the International Red Cross, and the British were offered safe passage for the plane to drop replacement artificial legs. Well, they dropped them after they bombed my air base. Bader was fitted and sent to a prison camp. We remained friends until his death a few years ago.

    WWII: How did you become General der Jagdflieger ("general of fighters") in 1941?

    Galland: Ernst Udet had committed suicide on November 17 of that year, and Werner Molders was coming back from Russia for the funeral. His Heinkel He-111 struck some telephone wires, and he was killed in the crash. At the time of his death he was acting as general of fighters, holding the rank of Oberst (colonel). After the funeral of both men, Goring called me aside and made me Molders' successor, still as a colonel. This was possible in the German military, but not so in your country's armed forces. Gerhard Schoepfel became Kommodore of my JG.26, and I went to Berlin. I had already been awarded the Swords to the Knight's Cross, and upon my arrival in January 28, 1942, I saw Hitler for the third time when he awarded me the Brillanten (Diamonds).

    WWII: You commanded the fighter cover for the famous Channel dash by the battle cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen in February 1942. How did that work?

    Galland: I organized a rotation of various fighter wings to fly top cover for the ships, an air umbrella to protect them from British air attacks. There was some damage from mines, but the Luftwaffe fighters shot down many British planes, and not a single major hit was made on the warships. That was a great success story that made me proud.
     
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  13. Transpspeer

    Transpspeer Gauleiter a.D.

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    WWII: So you were still placed in a desk job?

    Galland: Yes, and later in 1942 1 was promoted to General, then General Leutnant when I was 30 1/2 years old.

    WWII: That is remarkable.

    Galland: Yes, but I was still unhappy about it. I would have rather continued flying.

    WWII: Well, most of the pilots believed that your appointment as general of fighters was the best thing that could have happened to the Luftwaffe, except perhaps if Goring could have been dismissed.

    Galland: Well, it was a big responsibility, and you could never get what you needed. Our fighter force was small, and we received no understanding from Goring.

    WWII: Speaking of Goring, you had the most contact with him of all the pilots, and you understood his problems. What did you think of him personally?

    Galland: Yes, he had many problems, but he was basically an intelligent man and well educated, from the aristocracy. He had many weak points in his life, and he was always under pressure from Hitler, yet he never contradicted him or corrected him on any point. That was where he made his greatest mistakes. This weakness increased as the war dragged on, along with his drug addiction, until he was nothing. As far as our Luftwaffe was concerned, he was even less and should have been replaced.

    WWII: Isn't it true that regardless of Goring's position the fighter pilots looked to you for leadership most of the time?

    Galland: Yes, that was true.

    WWII: What were your impressions of Hitler, since you spent months in his company and knew him very well.

    Galland: Yes, I did spend months around him, speaking and having meetings, but I don't think anyone ever really,knew Adolf Hitler. I was not very impressed with him. The first time I met him was after Spain when we were summoned to the Reichschancellery. There was Hitler, short, gray-faced and not very strong, and he spoke with a crisp language. He did not allow us to smoke, nor did he offer us anything to drink, nothing like that. This impression was strengthened every year I knew him as his mistakes mounted and cost German lives, the mistakes that Goring should have brought to his attention. Other officers did, and they were relieved, but at least they did the right thing and voiced their objections. For Goring to willingly follow along was a terrible situation for me personally.

    WWII: So you feel Hitler should have replaced Goring as head of the Luftwaffe long before things became terminal?

    Galland: Sure, if Hitler cared, but who would take Goring's place and stand up to Hitler, to do what was right? People were not lining up for the job, I can tell you. Hitler was unable to think in three dimensions, and he had a very poor understanding when it came to the Luftwaffe, as with the U-boat service. He was strictly a landsman.

    WWII: Well, of all the men you led and are friends with today, are there any who simply stood out as great leaders apart from their records as aces?

    Galland: Oh, my, that would be a long list, and you also know most of them. Of all the names you could mention, I think perhaps the greatest leader was still Molders. All the rest are still very good friends of mine, but we are old men now, and life is not as fast as it was in the cockpit. However, as their leader I also made many mistakes. I could have done better. I was young and inexperienced with life, I guess. It is very easy to look back retrospectively and criticize yourself; however, at that time it was very difficult. My situation was that I had to fight with Goring and Hitler in order to accomplish what they wished, but without their support, if that makes any sense. Goring was a thorn in my side, and Hitler simply destroyed our country and others without any regard for the welfare of others.

    WWII: What led to the Fighters' Revolt in January 1945?

    Galland: Basically, it was the problems we were having with Goring, and the fact that he was blaming us, the fighter pilots, for the bombings and the losing of the war. All of the senior Kommodores brought their grievances to me, and we chose a spokesman to represent them. I sat on the panel and arranged for the meeting with Goring.

    WWII: Your spokesman was Gunther Lutzow?

    Galland: Yes, Lutzow was a great leader and a true knight, a gentleman. When they all sat down with Goring, he told Goring that if he interrupted, which he always did so that he could show his importance, nothing would get accomplished. Lutzow, Johannes Steinhoff and myself had voiced our grievances many times, but since I was not invited to this meeting, Hannes Trautloft along with Lutzow kept me informed as to their recommending that Goring step down for the good of the service. Well, I was fired as general of fighters, Steinhoff was banished from Germany and sent to Italy, and Goring told Lutzow that he was going to be shot for high treason.

    WWII: What was the atmosphere like, and what were the Kommodores' opinions of the meeting?

    Galland: Well, Goring knew that he did not have their loyalty, and we knew that we could not count on Berlin doing anything to help us, so we were alone, as we always were. At least now it was in the open, no pretenses.

    WWII: What do you recall about the death of ace Walter Nowotny, and do you feel that his death had any impact on Germany's Messerschmitt Me-262 jet fighter program?

    Galland: I had been telling Hitler for over a year, since my first flight in an Me-262, that only Focke Wulf Fw-190 fighter production should continue in conventional aircraft, to discontinue the Me-109, which was outdated, and to focus on building a massive jet-fighter force. I was in East Prussia for a preview of the jet, which was fantastic, a totally new development. This was 1943, and I was there with Professor Willy Messerschmitt and other engineers responsible for the development. The fighter was almost ready for mass production at that time, and Hitler wanted to see a demonstration. When the 262 was brought out for his viewing at Insterburg, and I was standing there next to him,. Hitler was very impressed. He asked the professor, "Is this aircraft able to carry bombs?" Well, Messerschmitt said, "Yes, my Fuhrer, it can carry for sure a 250-kilogram bomb, perhaps two of them." In typical Hitler fashion, he said "Well, nobody thought of this! This is the Blitz (lightning) bomber I have been requesting for years. No one thought of this. I order that this 262 be used exclusively as a Blitz bomber, and you, Messerschmitt, have to make all the necessary preparations to make this feasible." This was really the beginning of the misuse of the 262, as five bomber wings were supposed to be equipped with the jet. These bomber pilots had no fighter experience, such as combat flying or shooting, which is why so many were shot down. They could only escape by outrunning the fighters in pursuit. This was the greatest mistake surrounding the 262, and I believe the 262 could have been made operational as a fighter at least a year and a half earlier and built in large enough numbers so that it could have changed the air war. It would most certainly not have changed the final outcome of the war, for we had already lost completely, but it would have probably delayed the end, since the Normandy invasion on June 6, 1944, would probably not have taken place, at least not successfully if the 262 had been operational. I certainly think that just 300 jets flown daily by the best fighter pilots would have had a major impact on the course of the air war. This would have, of course, prolonged the war, so perhaps Hitler's misuse of this aircraft was not such a bad thing after all. But about Nowotny....
     
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  14. Transpspeer

    Transpspeer Gauleiter a.D.

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    WWII: Yes, how did you come to choose him as commander of the first jet-fighter wing in history?

    Galland: I was looking for the right type of pilot, someone daring and successful who could lead by example of his courage and determination, and Walter Nowotny had all of these qualities. The jet was being tested by some pilots at Achmer and other places, so after Walter finished as an instructor at the fighter pilots school in France, he was detailed to take over the jets and train pilots. We wanted to prove to Hitler that the jet was indeed a fighter, and to show what we believed would be the best results possible. This unit became known as Kommando Nowotny in July of 1944.

    WWII: What were the initial results?

    Galland: Fairly good. They had shot down a few bombers, and losses had been minimal, as long as top cover was flown by conventional aircraft to protect the jets on takeoffs and landings. American fighters would hang around to try and catch them at those weak moments.

    WWII: What brought you to Achmer on November 8?

    Galland: I arrived on that day to inspect the unit and write a report, plus I spoke with Nowotny that evening, and he was going to give me his pilots' reports concerning their actions. The next day, a flight of B-17 bombers was reported heading our way, so the unit took off, about six jets, if I remember correctly, in the first wave, then another. The Fw-190Ds were waiting on the runway to take off and cover their return, engaging the Allied fighters that were sure to follow. I was in the operations shack, where we monitored the radio transmissions and could get an idea of what was happening. Several bombers were called out as shot down, and Nowotny radioed that he was approaching. The flight leader on the ground, Hans Dortenmann, requested permission to take off to assist, but Nowotny said no, to wait. The defensive anti-aircraft battery opened fire on a few (North American P-51) Mustangs that approached the field, but they were chased away, from what I could understand, and the jets were coming in. One Me-262 had been shot down, and Nowotny reported one of his engines was damaged. He was flying on the right engine alone, which made him vulnerable. I stepped outside to watch his approach to the field, when an enemy fighter pulled away not far from us. I heard the sound of a jet engine, and we saw this 262 coming down through the light clouds at low altitude, rolling slightly and then hitting the ground. The explosions rocked the air, and only a column of black smoke rose from behind the trees. We took off in a car and reached the wreckage, and it was Nowotny's plane. After sifting through the wreckage, the only salvageable things found were his left hand and pieces of his Diamonds decoration.

    WWII: What impact did that have on the progress report to Hitler concerning the jet fighters?

    Galland: Hitler, from what I understand, was upset about his loss, but I don't think he really said anything about it to me. Well, the remains of that unit went to form JG.7, commanded by our friend Johannes Steinhoff. Steinhoff recruited other great aces to command the various groups.

    WWII: After you were fired as general of fighters, you were replaced by a man whom the fighter pilots did not respect, correct?

    Galland: Yes, Gordon Gollob, and he was not well liked. Although he was a good pilot, with the Diamonds, he had no character. He was not Goring's first choice. Hajo Herrmann was being considered, and he would have been a better selection. When I was released as general of fighters, Goring was preparing a coup against me, and when Hitler learned of this he ordered Goring to stop the actions against me. Hitler ordered my replacement but allowed me to form my own 262 unit, basically allowing me to keep my rank but reducing my responsibilities.

    WWII: How did you feel about once again becoming a squadron leader, where you started?

    Galland: I was happy. I then chose all the pilots I could find who would join me, and all had the Knight's Cross or higher decorations. This was the beginning of March 1945, when I created Jagdverband 44. I made Steinhoff my recruiting officer, and he traveled to all of the major bases, picking up pilots who wanted to once again feel a sense of adventure. We had most of the greats, like Gerd Barkhorn, Walter Krupinski, Heinz Bar, Erich Hohagen, Gunther Lutzow, Wilhelm Herget and others. I tried to get Erich Hartmann. We flew several missions and were very successful using the R4M rockets, which we fired at bomber formations. During my first attack with rockets, Krupinski was on my wing, and we witnessed the power in these rockets. I shot down two Martin B-26 Marauders.

    WWII: Tell us about April 26. That was your last combat flight wasn't it?

    Galland: Yes, I was shot down by a Republic P-47D flown by a man named James Finnegan, whom I met some years later, and we became friends. We were intercepting bombers near Neuberg. I was leading a flight, and I attacked from the rear, astern. My rockets did not fire, but I poured 30mm cannon shells into one bomber, which fell in flames, and flew right through the formation, hitting another. I could not tell if that bomber was finished off, so I banked around for another run, all the while my jet was receiving hits from the bombers' defensive fire. Suddenly my instrument panel disintegrated, my canopy was shattered, and my right knee was struck. I was losing power and was in great pain. I thought about parachuting out but realized that might be dangerous, as some of our pilots had been strafed upon exiting their jets. I flew for the deck and headed for this field at the air base, which was under attack. I cut the power to my good engine and thumped across the field. My nose wheel had been flattened, and smoke was pouring from my plane. I climbed out to get away, in case it should explode, only to find aircraft dropping bombs and firing rockets at me. Well, our mission netted five victories total, and none of the pilots were killed. From that point forward, Bar took operational command, and every unit in Germany with jets began bringing them to us at Reim airfield, near Munich. For such a long time I had been begging for planes. Now that the war was almost over I had more planes than men to fly them.

    WWII: You were there when Steinhoff crashed. What do you remember of that?

    Galland: Five of us--myself, Barkhorn, Schallmoser, Faehrmann and Klaus Neumann--were taking off on a mission shortly after our base had been attacked, and Steinhoff's 262 hit a crater made from a bomb. His jet lifted into the air but without sufficient takeoff speed, then he nosed in and exploded. We returned to base to find him carried to the hospital more dead than alive. The fact he survived is the most incredible thing, and I am glad he did, for he is one of my closest friends today.

    WWII: After you were captured and released from prison, you went to Argentina with other aviation experts. How did that happen?

    Galland: Juan Peron was wanting German experts to build his air force, and I was asked to come along with others. I went and established a training and operations school, developed their tactical training program, and was able to fly again in some of the new designs purchased by Argentina. I really loved that period. It was one of the happiest of my life. Kurt Tank (designer of the Focke Wulf 190 series of fighters) came, and he was the one who convinced President Peron to bring me over. I did that until 1955, when I returned to Germany and entered the business world, con-suiting and getting my life together.

    WWII: As you probably know, the Argentine air forces were still using much of your strategy and doctrine as late as the Falklands War, with great effect.

    Galland: Yes, they lost the war, but they had the best success in the air. They were bright young boys, willing to learn and quick to grasp the essentials of air combat.

    WWII: Tell us about your children.

    Galland: I have two--a son, Andreas-Hubertus, whom we call Andrus, combining the two names; and Alexandra, my daughter, two years younger than her brother and a very sweet girl. Both are from my first marriage. Andreas-Hubertus just recently married and is studying to become a lawyer, while Alexandra goes to school and studies languages. They are the sunshine of my life.
     
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  15. Adolf Mebius

    Adolf Mebius Flieger

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    Re: JG 26 "Шлагетер" (Jagdgeschwader 26 "Schlageter")

    "Ваш мальчик курит." (с) :D
    ...
    Галланд курит... видимо прячется от кого-то... :D
     

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  16. Set Izengrimm

    Set Izengrimm Єретик

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    Перевод прилагаю. Не моё.
     

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  17. Moruan

    Moruan Obergefreiter

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    Есть фото Адольфа Галланда с Вальтером Эзау, и с автографом Вальтера Эзау. Фото только пока такое. Фото находится в Германии. Все вопросы по поводу покупки в личку.
     

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  18. Set Izengrimm

    Set Izengrimm Єретик

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    Автографы Галланда:
     

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  19. Set Izengrimm

    Set Izengrimm Єретик

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    В JG 26
     

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  20. KRYLOV

    KRYLOV Stabsgefreiter

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    А.Г. на съёмках фильма "Битва за Британию". 1968 г.
     

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  21. Dag

    Dag Stabsgefreiter

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    Когда Галланд женился в первый раз, кто была его первая жена?
    Как и где погибли его братья-лётчики Пауль и Вильгельм?
     
  22. Dag

    Dag Stabsgefreiter

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    Re: JG 26 "Шлагетер" (Jagdgeschwader 26 "Schlageter")

    Или, скорей всего, от ветра прикрывает сигару.
     
  23. Set Izengrimm

    Set Izengrimm Єретик

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    Ну понятно, что не от Геринга:)

    Первая супруга - Сильвиния, графиня фон Дёнхофф (Sylvinia von Dönhoff), брак от 12 февраля 1954 года. Даты развода не знаю.

    Вторая жена - Ханнелиз, брак с сентября 1963 по 1973й год, двое детей: 1966 - сын; 1969 - дочь.

    Третья жена - Хайди Хорн (Heidi Horn), брак от 10 февраля 1984 года - 9 февраля 1996.

    ****************************************************************
    Касательно братьев:

    Средний, Вильгельм-Фердинанд, или просто "Вутц", был сбит "тандерболтом" 17 августа 1943 года, его самолёт упал в 5 километрах к западу от Маастрихта, близ городка Линье. Есть версия, что его сбил Уокер "Бад" Мэюрин из 56th F.Gr. USAAF.

    Младший, Пауль, был сбит "спитфайром" (предположительно из 91 Sqd.) и погиб 31 октября 1942 года в 20 километрах от Кале
     
    1 человеку нравится это.
  24. Adolf Mebius

    Adolf Mebius Flieger

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    Re: JG 26 "Шлагетер" (Jagdgeschwader 26 "Schlageter")

    Вы курите?
     
  25. Dag

    Dag Stabsgefreiter

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    Re: JG 26 "Шлагетер" (Jagdgeschwader 26 "Schlageter")

    Сигареты - только когда очень много выпью, а это бывает крайне редко. А вот сигары, только после хорошего коньяка.
    И если от сигареты, трезвым - могу отказаться легко, то вот от предложенной сигары и трезвым - пока не удавалось. :D
     
  26. Dag

    Dag Stabsgefreiter

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    :confused: Хм, вот здесь, в интервью,

    Galland: I have two--a son, Andreas-Hubertus, whom we call Andrus, combining the two names; and Alexandra, my daughter, two years younger than her brother and a very sweet girl. Both are from my first marriage.

    говорится, что дети от первого брака.

    И вроде он только дважды был женат.
     

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